Cell-Free Circulating Mitochondrial DNA: A Potential Blood-Based Marker for Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common, progressive tachyarrhythmia is associated with serious complications, such as stroke and heart failure. Early recognition of AF, essential to prevent disease progression and therapy failure, is hampered by the lack of accurate diagnostic serum biomarkers to identify the AF stage. As we previously showed mitochondrial dysfunction to drive experimental and human AF, we evaluated whether cellfree circulating mitochondrial DNA (cfc-mtDNA) represents a potential serum marker.

Therefore, the levels of two mtDNA genes, COX3 and ND1, were measured in 84 control patients (C), 59 patients undergoing cardiac surgery without a history of AF (SR), 100 paroxysmal (PAF), 116 persistent (PeAF), and 20 longstanding-persistent (LS-PeAF) AF patients undergoing either cardiac surgery or AF treatment (electrical cardioversion or pulmonary vein isolation).

YLKKIKNSL, P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP 334-342) polypeptide

CSPF15-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Mouse p/CIP/p300 Control/blocking peptide # 1

CIP11-P 100 ug
EUR 164

Mouse p/CIP/p300 Control/blocking peptide # 2

CIP12-P 100 ug
EUR 164

LEYYLREKAKMAGTLIIPES, P. vivax PvMSP-1 peptide 19 (378-397)

MSPV11-P 1 mg
EUR 164

SKDQIKKLTSLKNKLERRQN, P. vivax PvMSP-1 peptide 53 (1058-1077)

MSPV12-P 1 mg
EUR 164

NFVGKFLELQIPGHTDLLHL, P. vivax PvMSP-1 peptide 4 (78-97)

MSPV13-P 1 mg
EUR 164

FNQLMHVINFHYDLLRANVH, P. vivax PvMSP-1 peptide 6 (118-137)

MSPV14-P 1 mg
EUR 164

LDMLKKVVLGLWKPLDNIKD, P. vivax PvMSP-1 peptide 8 (158-177)

MSPV15-P 1 mg
EUR 164

Human Substance P Peptide (amide salt)

SP15-P-1 1 mg
EUR 164

Human Substance P Peptide (amide salt)

SP15-P-25 25 mg
EUR 529

Human Substance P Peptide (amide salt)

SP15-P-5 5 mg
EUR 286

KIYNRNIVNRLLGD, P-yoelii circumsporozoite protein (57?70), PyCSP (57?70) peptide

CSPY11-P 1 mg
EUR 286

SYVPSAEQI, P-yoelii circumsporozoite protein (280?288), PyCSP (280?288) peptide

CSPY12-P 1 mg
EUR 286

DELFNELLNSVDVNGENILEESQ, P. falciparum Liver-Stage Antigen 3-NRI (LSA3-NRI) peptide

LSPF32-P 1 mg
EUR 286

VTHESYQELVKKLEALEDAV, MSP-1 P1, peptide of P. falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1

MSPF11-P 1 mg
EUR 225

GYRKPLDNIKDNVGKMEDYIKK, MSP-1 P2, peptide of P. falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1

MSPF12-P 1 mg
EUR 225

KLNSLNNPHNVLQNFSVFFNK, MSP-1 P3, peptide of P. falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1

MSPF131-P 1 mg
EUR 225

LEESQVNDDIFNSLVKSVQQEQQHNV, P. falciparum Liver-Stage Antigen 3-NRII, LSA3-NRII (81-106) peptide

LSPF31-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Flg22 peptide (30-51 aa, Flic, P. aeruginosa), pure

FLG22-P-1 1 mg
EUR 286

Flg22 peptide (30-51 aa, Flic, P. aeruginosa), pure

FLG22-P-5 5 mg
EUR 651

(DRADGQPAG) 3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, CSP), pure

DRAD31-P 1 mg
EUR 408

(PPPPNPPND)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. berghei circumsporozoite protein, CSP), pure

PPPP312-P 1 mg
EUR 408

(PAPPNAAND)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. berghei circumsporozoite protein, CSP), pure

PAPP311-P 1 mg
EUR 408

Mouse beta-Defensin 1 full length (37 aa, oxidized) peptide; note replaces MBD12-P

MBD14-P 100 ug
EUR 286

(DRAAGQPAG)3 (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

DRAA31-P 100 ug
EUR 164

Simian virus 5 (starin W3) P/V Control/blocking peptide

AB-23077-P 100ug
EUR 164

(NANP)5 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

NANP51-P 1 mg
EUR 347

(PPPPNAND)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. berghei circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

PPPP321-P 100 ug
EUR 164

P

EF017937 96 Tests
EUR 689

P

EF017938 96 Tests
EUR 689

p

EF018011 96 Tests
EUR 689

P

EF007031 96 Tests
EUR 689

(NVDP)4 peptide (minor repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) control/blocking peptide

NVDP41-P 100 ug
EUR 164

(NANP)10 (40-aa NANP repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) peptide, pure

NANP101-P 0.5 mg
EUR 529

Mouse beta-Defensin 3 full length synthetic peptide (40 aa, oxidized, 3 disulfides); note: replaces MBD32-P:

MBD34-P 100 ug
EUR 286

Mouse beta-Defensin 3 full length synthetic peptide (40 aa, linear, no disulfides); note: replaces MBD33-P

MBD35-P 100 ug
EUR 286

Flg15 peptide (deletion peptide 30-44 aa, Flic, P. aeruginosa) control,pure

FLG15-P-1 1 mg
EUR 286

Flg15 peptide (deletion peptide 30-44 aa, Flic, P. aeruginosa) control,pure

FLG15-P-5 5 mg
EUR 651

Human beta-Defensin 1 (BD-1/hBD-1) full length (36 aa, oxidized) synthetic peptide; note: replaces HBD13-P

HBD16-P 100 ug
EUR 286

Human beta-Defensin 2 (BD-2/hBD-2) full length synthetic peptide (41 aa, linear, no-disulfides); note: replaces HBD22-P.

HBD24-P 100 ug
EUR 286

Rinder Pest NP (RPR-NP) peptide 456-490 aa, >90% pure (specific for rinder pest NP protein and corresponding for PPR16-P)

RPR18-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Phaseolus vulgaris lectin P (PHA-P

05-0115-10 10 mg
EUR 144

Phaseolus vulgaris lectin P (PHA-P

05-0115-1000 1 g Ask for price

Phaseolus vulgaris lectin P (PHA-P

05-0115-5 5 mg
EUR 100

Peste des petits ruminants NP (PPR-NP) peptide 421-455 aa, >90% pure (specific for PPR protein) (corresponding rinder pest peptide #RPR17-P)

PPR15-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Peste des petits ruminants NP (PPR-NP) peptide 456-490 aa, >90% pure (specific for PPR protein) (corresponding rinder pest peptide #RPR18-P)

PPR16-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Rinder Pest NP (RPR-NP) peptide 421-455 aa, >90% pure (specific for rinder pest NP protein and corresponding peptide for PPR15-P)

RPR17-P 1 mg
EUR 286

Substance P

B6620-1 1 mg
EUR 139

Substance P

B6620-10 10 mg
EUR 383

Substance P

B6620-25 25 mg
EUR 801

Cfc-mtDNA levels were significantly increased in PAF patients undergoing AF treatment, especially in males and patients with AF recurrence after AF treatment. In PeAF and LS-PeAF, cfc-mtDNA levels gradually decreased. Importantly, cfc-mtDNA in serum may originate from cardiomyocytes, as in vitro tachypaced cardiomyocytes release mtDNA in the medium.

The findings suggest that cfc-mtDNA is associated with AF stage, especially in males, and with patients at risk for AF recurrence after treatment.